Thermal processing operations in the canning industry aim to ensure adequate destruction of expected spoilage organisms and pathogens in the product based on reliable microbial thermal-death-time information. As pointed out by Ball and Olson and Kopelman and Pflug , according to heat transfer theory the values of f h and f cl do not depend on thermocouple location. Thermal Processing is part of a much wider? Bee and Park noted that the design of heat processes is based on the measurement of temperatures in the coldest portion of the container at various time intervals. The net impact of thermocouple placement on the calculated integrated lethality, or the area under the curve of the lethal rate versus time, is negligible in home canning of acid foods where established recipes instruct consumers to place jars of hot food on the counter to air cool after processing in a BWC. Mean lethality as determined by thermocouple location when processing applesauce, tomato juice, and cranberries in heavy syrup in pint jars. We determined that thermocouple location in a jar during home canning did not affect the calculated lethality, in agreement with heat transfer theory that predicts that the rate of heating and cooling f h and f cl do not depend on thermocouple location.
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The challenge is to efficiently transfer the heat to the water and to the steam turbine with as little loss as possible. In both cases it is important to find the cold zone at which the slowest heat transfer will be applied. In a number of industrial applications it is the effusivity that is the controlling parameter, not the diffusivity. Lesson 2 will pertain to the science of calorimetry. Our discussion will be restricted to the variables affecting the rate of heat transfer by conduction. The two outliers are the ones with a relatively low density. Initially heat is being transferred at a high rate as reflected by the steeper slopes.
Depth of Penetration
One of these solid insulators is expanded polystyrene, the material used in Styrofoam products. All of the above phases are focused on identifying the worst case conditions to which a product would be exposed, with the lowest temperatures and slowest heat transfer leading to the lowest microbial reduction. A priory knowledge of optical tissue properties is necessary in these applications; not only of human but also in animals for testing of devices. This is evidence of a larger heat penetration depth in a high-Z material in comparison to a low-Z material.
Depth of Penetration
Description: For instance, heat transfer through windows of homes is dependent upon the size of the window. If the thickness of the material through which heat is transferred is increased by a factor of 2, then the rate of heat transfer is decreased by a factor of 2. Use the information on this page to explain why the inch thick layer of blubber on a polar bear helps to keep polar bears warm during frigid artic weather. More heat will be lost from a home through a larger roof than through a smaller roof with the same insulation characteristics.